Summary: The findings of the study reported in this investigation appear to indicate that normal swallowing is a synchronous, precise behavior that utilizes some muscle energy output in all muscles of concern. Deviant swallowing is not only a habitual thrusting of the tongue anteriorly through or against a deviant dental configuration, but also appears to be a disarranged, asynchronous pattern utilizing more muscle energy output in all muscles of concern than in normal swallowing.
Overstake, C. P.
(1975). Electromyographic study of normal and deviant swallowing.
International Journal of Oral Myology,