A questionnaire was mailed to a sample of speech pathologists and orthodontists throughout the United States to determine their views on tongue thrust, to discover the sources of those views, and describe the influence they are having on professional practices. The majority of speech pathologists and orthodontists sampled favored treatment or referral for some cases of tongue thrust and that speech pathologists and myofunctional therapists would be the most likely professionals for treating tongue thrust. The source of these views was most often accredited to professional practice. The majority of professionals sampled reported treating or referring cases of tongue thrust despite the fact that they acknowledged the lack of research evidence to provide them with clear direction for their professional practice.
Umberger, F. G., et al. (1985). Tongue Thrust: Attitudes and Practices of Speech Pathologists and Orthodontists, International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 11 (3), 5-13.