Employing a single subject A-B-A experimental design, a four year old female with normal articulation and a history of pacifier use was observed to demonstrate alveolar stop retraction more than fifty percent of the time while using her orthodontic device. Contextual factors appeared to have played a role in this variability. Upon confirming this phenomenon in the four year old subject, a foiiow-up investigation was undertaken with seven children between the ages of three and five years. All subjects had age appropriate articulation skills with no evidence of alveolar stop retraction without the pacifier in place and only rarely with the pacifier in place (.85% ). Implications of these findings and the need for further research are discussed.
Garber, N., & Reynolds, M. E.
(1994). An examination of alveolar stop retraction during pacifier use.
International Journal of Orofacial Myology,