A prototype is presented for evaluating oral myofacial dysfunctions including oral breathing, abnormal swallowing, speech articulation errors, and chewing and sucking habits. An accurate assessment of these parameters prior to orthodontic treatment may aid in the completion and stability of orthodontic cases.
Carvalho, M. P., et al. (1992). Evaluation of orofacial muscle dysfunction in orthodontics, International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 18 (1), 11-20.