In recent years many studies on the anatomy and neurophysiology of muscles of the face and mouth have revealed a much more complex ability of muscles to "multitask". Apart from being involved in sucking, swallowing, chewing and speaking, some muscles are also involved in the patency of the airways during sleep, the postural position of the jaw during physical activities, the promotion of nasal breathing, or stress relief, just to name a few functions. In this brief review, some additional properties of the genioglossus (GG), the palatoglossus (PG), the masseters (MM) and the orbicularis oris (OO) will be reviewed.


genioglossus, palatoglossus, masseters, orbicularis oris, breathing, sleep, posture, stress