tongue tie, ankyloglossia, oropharyngeal dysphagia
Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) involves difficulty during one or more of the stages of swallowing, resulting in difficulty moving the bolus from the mouth to the stomach. A deficit in tongue mobility, such as that found with ankyloglossia, may affect the oropharyngeal transit time of the bolus and predispose a person to OPD. This study was conducted to examine the possible relationship between tongue tie and oropharyngeal dysphagia. Data were gathered on 8 participants (5 females, 3 males) between the ages of 12-43 years. The Lingual Frenulum Protocol (Marchesan, 2012) was used to determine tongue tie. An Iowa Oral Pressure Instrument (IOPI) measured tongue tip, tongue dorsum, and lip strength, and a combination of electromyography, and the five- finger palpation method measured laryngeal timing. Measurements were compared with normative data from Holzer (2011). Results revealed that participants with ankyloglossia had signs of oral stage dysphagia, including reduced articulator strength (tongue tip and dorsum, and lips) and reduced masseter activity. Oropharyngeal transit times were not significantly different from the norms.
Moulton, K., et al. (2018). Examining the effects of ankyloglossia on swallowing function, International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 44 (1), 5-21.