Background: Breathing, chewing, swallowing, sleep, and speech disorders are known to be associated with malocclusions. Assessment protocols using non-instrumental evaluation of orofacial myofunctional disorders (OMD) in adults with malocclusions are almost nonexistent. Purpose: This scoping review aimed to determine the existence of scientific evidence demonstrating the areas of non-instrumental assessment of OMD in adults with malocclusion. Another purpose was to identify the protocols for assessing the nature of orofacial myofunctional assessments in adults with malocclusion. Methods: An electronic search was performed in the databases: MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Health & Medical Collection, Medline, Nursing and Allied Health Database, Common Health Complete, PubMed, Consumer Health, and Health Services: Nursing/Academic Edition, for papers published between 2000 and October 2021. This exhaustive search was conducted using the key search terms: oral myofunctional disorders, orofacial myofunctional disorders, malocclusion, assessment protocols, and adults. The articles were selected for inclusion and analysis by two independent researchers. Results: The search strategy with a list of eligibility criteria resulted in the retrieval of 72 peer-reviewed studies. Only 21 were included in the article since they were related to the assessment areas of OMD due to malocclusion. Out of 21, only three articles included information on OMD assessment protocols for adults. Information on assessments from the articles was extracted and analyzed by the authors. The results of this study indicated that published oromyofunctional assessment protocols, specifically for adults with malocclusion, are limited. Conclusions: Though the availability of valid and reliable protocols is limited, OMD assessments must address various orofacial functions and draw from multiple disciplines to initiate appropriate referrals for improving the quality of life of patients with OMD.
orofacial myofunctional, malocclusion, adults, assessment
Washington, S. C., & Ray, J.
(2021). Orofacial myofunctional assessments in adults with malocclusion: A scoping review.
International Journal of Orofacial Myology and Myofunctional Therapy,